The Sublime in Art
Summary of The Sublime in Art
Feelings of terror, awe, infinity, and minuteness swirl and course through an experience of the sublime in nature, and for centuries, artists from Donatello to Bill Viola have attempted to recreate that experience in their paintings, sculptures, and video projections. Theorized as early as the 1st century, the sublime has captivated writers, philosophers, and artists alike. Through its various definitions and interpretations, at its base, the sublime is a feeling rooted in humans' relationships to the world, to nature, and what lies beyond that help us to formulate an understanding of ourselves.
Because the experience of the sublime is relational - we feel ourselves in relation to something larger than ourselves - artists interested in the sublime use myriad methods and mediums - from color and perspective to immersive installations and sound - to create an experience that engages the viewer's senses and brings him or her into the work. Artists employ the sublime to comment not only on our relationship with nature, but the fast-changing pace of technology as well as troubling contemporary events of war and violence.
Key Ideas & Accomplishments
- Modern evocations of the sublime took root in the philosophical writings of the 17th and 18th centuries. In order to understand human feeling and passions, writers attempted to systematically interrogate the sources of said feelings. Most influentially, Emmanuel Kant located the sublime in humans' incapacity to understand terrifying vastness and because of this we recognize our own smallness and limitations.
- So often the sublime evokes a sense of what is beyond us that we cannot comprehend, and for this reason it has long been associated with religion, spirituality, and transcendence. Even in secular contexts, the sublime conjures something awe-inspiring and reminds us that humans are not necessarily at the center of the world.
- In the 20th century, artists interested in the sublime often turned to machines, technology, and factories to find the extraordinary and overwhelming. Human technology now captures the imagination and controls much of our life, and what began as an enthusiastic embrace of how technology can enrich our world has in many cases turned into a fear of the technological sublime.
- The politicization and commodification of sublime spectacle has led recent scholarship to look more closely at the sublime and its relation to capitalism and how experiences of nature and technology are sold to consumers. Whether with eco-tourism or an exhibition spectacle at a museum, people increasingly pay for a sublime experience, and some would argue that the contamination of the experience by capital subverts the original ideas of the sublime.
Overview of The Sublime in Art
When Théodore Géricault began his preparatory studies for his masterwork The Raft of The Medusa he went to some extreme and shocking lengths. To fully present the horrendous realities of the stricken survivors on his shipwrecked raft, he brought decomposing body parts into his atelier - reportedly storing them under his bed. He visited morgues so he could see up close the effect of death on the human body. This was his version of the sublime; an aesthetic designed to shock, upset and terrify.
The Important Artists and Works of The Sublime in Art
Many consider this gory and chilling work to be Géricault's magnum opus, and it changed the direction of modern art. The enormous canvas, almost 23 by 16 feet, depicts the survivors and less fortunate occupants of a life raft that had been cut adrift from a stricken French navy frigate, sunk by an incompetent captain. Dead or dying, the figures cut a horrifying scene as they are thrown about on the turbulent West African sea. When the raft was eventually rescued after 13 days, only fifteen men remained alive. Another five died during the voyage, and the event caused a contemporary scandal surrounding France's colonial aspirations.
As history painters had never before depicted a contemporaneous event, the work shocked the public, and its gruesome rendering further outraged them. Géricault went to great lengths to portray realistically the horror of the event, visiting morgues to study the skin color of the dead, even taking body parts home to work from as models. The pyramidal structure, comprising the raft's corners and the rickety mast, add to the drama of the gruesome scene. He also uses chiaroscuro to add drama to a terrifying sky and to highlight the deathly pallor of the parched bodies. By allowing the edges of the raft to move beyond the bottom of the frame, the artist invites the spectator onto its perilous floor, and by turning the stricken subjects' heads and arms towards the horizon, the viewer is drawn more deeply into the terrible scene as they hopelessly seek rescue.
The notion of horror and death is a key motif in the exploration of the sublime. Edmund Burke wrote, "Whatever is fitted in any sort to excite the ideas of pain, and danger, that is to say whatever is in any sort terrible...is a source of the sublime; that is, it is productive of the strongest emotion which the mind is capable of feeling." Géricault's fascination with the macabre can also be seen in Francisco Goya's powerful plates, The Disasters of War produced ten years previously. And artist have sought to replicate a morbid fascination up until today as artists including Joseph Beuys, Anselm Keifer, Doris Salcedo, and Damien Hirst explore the sublime in reaction to traumatic events and death.
In Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows the sublime becomes apparent in the work's moody skies and teeming symbolism. An influential figure in the Romantic movement, Constable became known for his unique treatment of light and use of vibrant, naturalistic colors, but this large canvas has a dark and ominous feel and raises questions about the future of the Anglican Church. In the center of the scene, the spire of Salisbury Cathedral pierces the lightening-cleaved clouds, but the contrasting lights in the scene solicit a symbolic reading of the church. Divided diagonally across the center, the left bottom triangle shows in muted browns and oranges a pastoral scene, and a man on horse and cart wade through a stream. A large tree on the left casts a deep shadow over the scene. Despite the presence of a rainbow cutting through the upper triangle of the composition, the sky is dark and brooding. Shafts of light battle with squalls of rain, and the reds of the gray sky are used to threatening effect. Many have also tied the contrasting moods to Constable's own psychological state after the death of his wife.
Art historian Anne Lyles says the work represents the "transcendental sublime," explaining, "When the painting was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1831, the critics acknowledged the extent to which it differed from the artist's previous work, but struggled to define the ways in which this was so. Their descriptions ranged from 'exaggerated,' 'theatrical,' and 'unnatural.'" But Charles Robert Leslie, Constable's biographer, wrote that the artist believed the work conveyed "the full impression of the compass of his art" and that one day it would probably "be considered his greatest" picture.
J.M.W Turner explored notions of impermanence, death, and violence in his seascapes and nature paintings. In this dynamic and expressive work, Turner uses a palette of fiery reds and yellows to depict a treacherous ocean. The bottom half of the canvas depicts a tumultuous sea, in which animals and slaves are engulfed. Flame-like waves lick at the fiery sky as a spindly, vulnerable ship sails away, abandoning the overthrown. The horizon seems to pivot, emphasizing the fear and chaos experienced by the drowning. Here, a number of sublime concepts are at play: the sun, godlike but uncaring, in the center of the canvas evokes the spiritual, the menace of drowning and death loom, and nature is presented as all-powerful and terrifying.
The work was based on a poem about the true story of slave ship whose captain had thrown sick and dying slaves overboard so he could claim insurance on lives lost at sea. Turner was fascinated by the human and elemental violence, and the sea provided a powerful place for an exploration of the sublime. Writer Alison Smith said, "Turner's works have been seen to both elevate and inspire perception in the beholder." Turner used skilled brushwork and color effect to unsettle the viewer. The critic John Ruskin wrote, "If I were reduced to rest Turner's immortality upon any single work, I should choose this."
Useful Resources on The Sublime in Art
- An essay on the theory of paintingBy Jonathan Richardson (1665-1745)
- Letters on Landscape, Paintings (1855): Asher B. DurandBy Asher B Durand (1855)
- Modern Painting and the Northern Romantic Tradition: Friedrich to RothkoOur PickBy Robert Rosenblum (May 23, 1977)
- Reading American ArtBy Marianne Doezema and Elizabeth Milroy (June 16, 1998)
- The SublimeOur PickEdited by Simon Morley (March 5, 2010)
- British Art and the SublimeOur PickBy Christine Riding and Nigel Llewellyn
- Chaos and Awe: Painting for the 21st CenturyThe Frist Art Museum
- Double Negative. See Michael Heizer's vast land art from space.
- Longinus and the Baroque Sublime in BritainBy Lydia Hamlett (January 2013)
- Kasimir Malevich's Black SquareBy Philip Shaw / Tate Research Project / January 2013
- Sun Tunnels. A collaboration between artist, engineers, astronomers, pipe manufacturers, drillers, truck drivers, and others.
- Shipwreck, Self-preservation and the SublimeBy Christine Riding / Tate Research Publication / January 2013
- Sublime Nature: John Constable's Salisbury Cathedral from the MeadowsBy Anne Lyles / Tate Research Publication / January 2013
- The Sublime in Crisis: Landscape Painting after TurnerBy Alison Smith / Tate Research Publication / January 2013
- The Whispering Zeitgeist: Caspar David FriedrichBy Beat Wyss / Tate Etc / 1 September 1 2008
- A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and BeautifulOur PickBy Edmund Burke / 1756
- 'Art Is a Force for Life, Not Death': Clyfford Still on the Power of Painting, in 1976By Thomas Albright / Art News / May 12, 2015
- Beyond the Infinite: Robert Rosenblum on the Sublime in Contemporary Art, in 1961Art News / March 27, 2015
- Bill Viola and the SublimeBy Rina Arya / The Tate Research Project / January 2013
- Contemporary Art and the SublimeBy Julian Bell / The Tate Research Project / January 2013
- Damien Hirst's Shark: Nature, Capitalism and the SublimeBy Luke White / Tate Research Publication / January 2013
- The Hudson River SchoolBy Kevin J. Avery / The Metropolitan Museum of Art / October 2004
- The Sublime and the Beautiful: Painting the Hudson ValleyBy John A. Parks / Artists Network
- The Sublime and the Avant-gardeBy Jean-François Lyotard / Art Forum / 1984
- Video Games and the Technological SublimeBy Eugénie Shinkle / Tate Research Publication / January 2013
- An examination of Barnett Newman's Vir Heroicus Sublimis
- See Anish Kapoor's Descension at Brooklyn Bridge Park
- Damien Hirst, The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living. Beth Harris, Sal Khan and Steven Zucker discuss the Damien Hirst sculpture.
- The Aesthetic of the Sublime in Romantic PaintingsChristine Riding discusses different aspects of the sublime with curators and researchers.
- The Fine Art of the SublimeIn a series of short films Tate curator Christine Riding discusses different aspects of the sublime.