Austrian Draftsman, Painter, and Printmaker
Tuln an de Donau, near Vienna, Austria
Summary of Egon Schiele
With his signature graphic style, embrace of figural distortion, and bold defiance of conventional norms of beauty, Egon Schiele was one of the leading figures of Austrian Expressionism. His portraits and self-portraits, searing explorations of their sitters' psyches and sexuality, are among the most remarkable of the 20th century. The artist, who was astoundingly prolific during his brief career, is famous not only for his psychologically and erotically charged works, but for his intriguing biography: his licentious lifestyle marked by scandal, notoriety, and a tragically early death of influenza at age twenty-eight, three days after the death of his pregnant wife, and at a time when he was on the verge of the commercial success that had eluded him for much of his career.
- Schiele's portraits and self-portraits helped re-establish the vitality of both genres with their unprecedented level of emotional and sexual directness and use of figural distortion in place of conventional notions of beauty. Frequently depicting himself or those close to him, Schiele's portraits often present their sitters in the nude, posed in revealing, unsettling angles—frequently viewed from above—and devoid of secondary attributes often depicted in the portrait genre. At times, Schiele used traditional motifs, giving the intensely personal images a more general, allegorical statement on the human condition.
- Creating some three thousand drawings over the course of his brief career, Schiele was both an extraordinarily prolific and unparalleled draughtsman. He regarded drawing as his primary art form, appreciating it for its immediacy of expression, and produced some of the finest examples of drawing in the 20th century. Even his painterly oeuvre revealed a style that captured some of drawing's essential characteristics, with its emphasis on contour, graphic mark, and linearity.
- Painter Gustav Klimt was the primary influence on Schiele's development, serving as Schiele's friend and mentor. While Schiele inherited Klimt's focus on erotic images of the female form (and shared Klimt's insatiable sexual appetite), the emotionally intense, often unsettling Expressionist idiom Schiele eventually developed, with its investigation of his sitters' inner life and emotional states, in some ways directly opposed his mentor's Art Nouveau–inspired style, with Klimt preferring a more brilliant palette and glimmering, patterned surfaces.
Biography of Egon Schiele
To counter what he called, “a mourning world,” Egon Schiele put his faith in art that “could only stem from intimacy,” as he uniquely combined torment and eroticism in his Expressionistic works.
Important Art by Egon Schiele
This is one of Schiele's many portraits of his younger sister, Gerti, the artist's favorite model during his early career and the member of his family with whom he was the closest. Painted when Gerti was a teenager, this early portrait demonstrates both the strong stylistic link between Schiele's work and that of Klimt, as well as the shift away from the style of his mentor. In her pose and adornment composed from a series of flat patches with gold and silver accents, Gerti's figure is reminiscent of Klimt's works such as Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer (1907). But unlike the Klimtian predecessor, the image is not so much decorative as static and soft, as if Schiele were casting his sitter in clay. In addition, Schiele replaced Klimt's richly shimmering, gold-dominated palette with more muted colors, creating an image that appears dried-out, suggestive of decay rather than growth.
Schiele's self-portraits are extraordinary not only for the frequency with which the artist depicted himself, but for the manner in which he did so: eroticized depictions where he often appears in the nude, in highly revealing poses—male self-portraits virtually unparalleled in the history of Western art. In this drawing, the artist has created an intense and almost frightening vision of himself: emaciated, with glowing red eyes, legs deformed and footless, his body fully exposed, yet with his face partially hidden, perhaps suggesting a sense of shame, and in a twisting pose indebted, as many writers have suggested, to the important influence of modern dance. Characteristic of the Expressionist mode that Schiele was increasingly practicing at this time, he expresses his anxiety through line and contour, and flesh that appears abraded and subjected to harsh elements.
This is perhaps Schiele's most celebrated self-portrait, and certainly the most storied. In this work, painted during a time in which he was participating in numerous exhibitions, Schiele gazes directly at the viewer, his expression suggesting a confidence in his artistic gifts. Although Schiele deploys less distortion than in other self-portraits, the painting refuses to idealize its subject, featuring scars and other lines characteristic of the contoured manner of the artist's drawing style.
Exhibited in Munich in 1912 alongside work by a number of other Expressionist artists, the painting has a companion portrait depicting his lover at the time, Wally Neuzil (the Wally portrait was stolen by the Nazis from the home of a Jewish Austrian, only to be returned to Vienna in 2010 following a prolonged, twelve-year legal battle). It now serves as a "poster child" for the Leopold Museum in Vienna, which houses the largest Schiele collection in the world.
Influences and Connections
Useful Resources on Egon Schiele
- Egon Schiele: The Leopold Collection, ViennaOur PickBy Rudolf Leopold, Elisabeth Leopold
- Egon SchieleOur PickBy Erwin Mitsch
- Gustav Klimt and Egon Schiele (1965)Guggenheim Exhibition Catalogue / By Thomas Messer
- Egon SchieleBy Klaus Albrecht Schroder
- Egon Schiele (Best Of Collection)By Esther Selsdon, Jeanette Zwingerberger
- Egon Schiele: Eros and Passion (Pegasus Series)By Klaus Albrecht Schroder
- Egon Schiele: Drawings and WatercolorsBy Jane Kallir, Ivan Vartanian
- Egon Schiele LandscapesOur PickBy Rudolph Leopold
- Egon Schiele: Self-Portraits and PortraitsBy Agnes Husslein-Arco, Jane Kallir
- Egon Schiele $40m Sale Settles Nazi Compensation CaseOur PickArtLyst / June 23, 2011
- Schiele and Picasso Draw Interest at London AuctionsBy Carol Vogel / The New York Times / June 22, 2011
- Egon Schiele: Women – ReviewBy Jonathan Jones / The Guardian / May 16, 2011
- A Schiele Going, A Schiele StayingBy Carol Vogel / The New York Times / May 5, 2011
- With the End of a Legal Dispute, a Schiele Comes to ManhattanOur PickBy Randy Kennedy / The New York Times / July 29, 2010
- Egon Schiele as PrintmakerOur PickBy Karen Rosenberg / The New York Times / January 8, 2010
- The Wider, Not Wilder, Egon SchieleBy Ken Johnson / The New York Times / October 21, 2005
- Excess & PunishmentThis German film from 1980 focuses on Schiele's life and attempts to delve into the psychological and emotional undercurrents that drove his artistic career and precluded his untimely death.
- "The Art of New York Fashion Week"Fashion Designed Isabella Tonchi creates dresses based on motifs by Egon Schiele