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Robert Motherwell Artworks

American Painter and Printmaker

Robert Motherwell Photo

Born: January 24, 1915 - Aberdeen, Washington

Died: July 16, 1991 - Provincetown, Massachusetts

Artworks by Robert Motherwell

The below artworks are the most important by Robert Motherwell - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

Pancho Villa, Dead and Alive (1943)

Pancho Villa, Dead and Alive is a direct reference to a photograph that Motherwell encountered of the murdered revolutionary, Pancho Villa. The work straddles the line between referential painting and the style that would become Abstract Expressionism, and includes several thematic relationships that appear throughout the artist's oeuvre. In its allusion to the Mexican revolution, this work also prefigures the themes that would drive Motherwell's seminal Elegy to the Spanish Republic series.

At Five in the Afternoon (c.1949)

At Five in the Afternoon began as a small pen and ink drawing that Motherwell composed in 1948 to accompany a poem by Harold Rosenberg. A year later, Motherwell reinvented the drawing as a small painting and renamed the work after a line in the poem "Lament for Ignacio Sanchez Mejias," by Federico Garcia Lorca. This work acts as the first entry in Motherwell's Elegies to the Spanish Republic series and sets up a formal and aesthetic system that would define the entire series.

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Je t'aime No.2 (1955)

Je t'aime No.2 serves as a prime example of Motherwell's second significant series of paintings, which he composed between 1953 and 1957, as his second marriage came to an end. The work exhibits energetic, emotionally charged brushwork, bright, evocative colors, and the artist's trademark ovoid and rectilinear forms. Written across the canvas is the French phrase "Je t'aime," ("I love you") an allusion to the lasting influence of Gallic culture on Motherwell's work, and, no doubt, a reference to the artist's personal anxieties during this time.

Elegy to the Spanish Republic No. 110 (1971)

Elegy to the Spanish Republic No. 110 is part of a series comprising more than 140 paintings, which Motherwell worked on throughout his long career. The series functioned as the artist's memorial to the Spanish Civil War, an event that had come to symbolize for him the human tragedies of oppression and injustice. No. 110 is typical in its stark black and white palette, and interplay of ovoid and bar-like rectilinear forms. What exactly those forms are intended to mean, though, has been the subject of great debate. Some compare them to architecture, or to ancient monuments, while others read them as phalluses and wombs, which, along with the pictures' somber palette, might suggest the cycle of life and death.

The Blue Painting Lesson: A Study in Painterly Logic, number one of five (1973)

The Blue Painting Lesson: A Study in Painterly, is part of a group of works composed between 1968 and 1972, known as the Opens series. It shares a simple but powerful formal construct with the rest of the series: a densely colored, almost monochromatic background highlighted by a two or three-sided box that enters the canvas from the top of the composition. This box is an abstract reference to the window views seen in the work of many European masters, and may also refer to the intersection of internal and external worlds in the life of the artist.

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Tobacco Roth-Handle (1974)

Tobacco Roth-Handle is a synthesis of collage and printmaking techniques - two important strains in Motherwell's work. The central identifiable image in the print, a cigarette wrapper, is a personal reference; it is typical of the sort of ephemera from the artist's daily life that had begun to find its way into Motherwell's collages by the 1960s. Regarding his collages, Motherwell once said, "The part of my vocabulary that is not from inner pressure, but that is drawn from the external world, is from the social world. To pick up a cigarette wrapper or a wine label or an old letter or the end of a carton is my way of dealing with those things that do not originate in me, in my I."

Related Artists and Major Works

Being With (Etre Avec) (1946)

Artist: Roberto Matta (Read Full Artist Overview, Biography, and Artworks pages)

As one of Matta's "Social Morphology" paintings, Being With (Etre Avec) represents a direct response to the horrors of the Second World War. Matta's deep-seated dismay finds expression in the menacing mechanical contraptions and the contorted, violently violated humanoid forms that populate the painting. The figures here are reminiscent of both totemic art and Alberto Giacometti's sculptures. Furthermore, the influence of the contemporary Mexican muralists can be seen in this work's increased scale, at 87 x 180 inches, and Matta's explicit engagement with social issues.

Bathers by a River (1917)

Artist: Henri Matisse (Read Full Artist Overview, Biography, and Artworks pages)

Matisse regarded this picture as one of the most important in his career, and it is certainly one of his most puzzling. He worked on it at intervals over eight years, and it passed through a variety of transformations. The painting evolved out of a commission from Matisse's Russian patron, Sergei Shchuckin, for two decorative panels on the subjects of dance and music, and, initially, the scheme for the picture resembled the idyllic scenes he had previously depicted in paintings such as Joy of Life (1905-06). However, his transformations gradually turned it into more of a confrontation with Cubism, and it is for this reason that the picture has been the subject of intense scrutiny. Although Matisse rejected Cubism, he certainly felt challenged by it, and this picture - along with many he painted from 1913 to 1917 - seems to be influenced by the style, since it is very unlike his previous, more decorative work. It is far more concerned with faithful representation of the structure of the human figure, and its position in space. The painting might be compared to The Backs series (1909-31), which also preoccupied Matisse the years he was working on Bathers, since both address the problem of depicting a three-dimensional figure against a flat background.

Bowl of Fruit, Violin and Bottle (1914)

Artist: Pablo Picasso (Read Full Artist Overview, Biography, and Artworks pages)

Picasso's Bowl of Fruit, Violin and Bottle is typical of his Synthetic Cubism, in which he uses various means - painted dots, silhouettes, grains of sand - to allude to the depicted objects. This combination of painting and mixed media is an example of the way Picasso "synthesized" color and texture - synthesizing new wholes after mentally dissecting the objects at hand. During his Analytic Cubist phase Picasso had suppressed color, so as to concentrate more on the forms and volumes of the objects, and this rationale also no doubt guided his preference for still life throughout this phase. The life of the café certainly summed up modern Parisian life for the artists - it was where he spent a good deal of time talking with other artists - but the simple array of objects also ensured that questions of symbolism and allusion might be kept under control.


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