German-American Painter and Theoretician
New York City, NY
Summary of Hans Hofmann
A pioneering artist and teacher, Hans Hofmann emigrated from Germany to the United States in 1930. He brought with him a deep knowledge of French art, gleaned from years spent in Paris before World War I, and this proved crucial in spreading European modernist styles and ideas in the United States. He taught Lee Krasner, Helen Frankenthaler, and Larry Rivers, and he formed a close relationship with Jackson Pollock. Hofmann's own style represented a fusion of various modes, and his later work made a powerful contribution to Abstract Expressionism.
- Hofmann's years in Paris brought him into direct contact with artists such as Georges Braque, Pablo Picasso, Fernand Leger, and Robert Delaunay, and his own style would come to be a fusion of various modes. At various times his work blended Cubist structure with Fauvist color, Expressionist energy, and touches of Surrealism.
- Hofmann believed fervently that a modern artist must remain faithful to the flatness of the canvas support. To suggest depth and movement in the picture - to create what he called "push and pull" in the image - artists should create contrasts of color, form, and texture.
- Nature was the origin of art, Hofmann believed, and no matter how abstract his pictures seemed to become, he always sought to maintain in them a link to the world of objects. Even when his canvases seemed to be only collections of forms and colors, Hofmann argued that they still contained the suggestion of movement - and movement was the pulse of nature.
- Although renowned for his ideas, Hofmann once said that "painters must speak through paint, not through words." And his own foremost medium of expression was color: "The whole world, as we experience it visually," he said, "comes to us through the mystic realm of color."
Biography of Hans Hofmann
Born Johan Georg Albert in Weissenberg, Bavaria in 1880, Hofmann was a precocious child, showing early inclinations towards mathematics, music, science, literature, and art. When he was six years old, his family moved to Munich where his father had secured a job in the government bureaucracy. In time his father would use his position to help find a position for his son working for the Director of Public Works of the State of Bavaria, and it was here that Hofmann began his working life and where he patented several scientific inventions, including a radar device for ships, whilst still in his teenage years.
Important Art by Hans Hofmann
Pictures such as The Wind have been at the center of a long controversy over whether Hofmann inspired Jackson Pollock's use of the drip technique. Some have claimed that Pollock saw pictures like this when he visited Hofmann's studio in 1942, and that this inspired his first use of poured paint in 1943.It was first thought that this work was produced in 1942, but now, professionals believe, that The Wind was produced around 1944, and that it was Pollock and Hofmann's twin interest in the work of André Masson, among others, that led both men to experiment with dripped paint at the same time.
Hofmann created many self-portrait drawings and paintings, usually depicting himself at work. Self-Portrait with Brushes is typical of his approach, yet it stands out in the way it combines styles to create an expressive character sketch. Using bold outlines to exaggerate his own features - creating a broad triangular nose and tousled hair - Hofmann projects a playful persona in a blue on yellow palette set within the interior space of his studio.
In 1947, Hofmann abandoned painting on board and began to use canvas. He also began to explore a wider variety of styles, and Ecstasy reflects his experiments, showing his continued loyalty to European masters such as Joan Miro and Hans Arp at a time when many of Hofmann's American colleagues were trying to overcome European influences.
Influences and Connections
Useful Resources on Hans Hofmann
- Hans HofmannOur PickBy Cynthia Goodman
- Color Creates Light: Studies with Hans HofmannBy Tina Dickey
- Hans Hofmann: Revised and ExpandedBy Sam Hunter, James Yohe, Frank Stella, Tina Dickey
- Search for the Real and Other EssaysOur PickBy Hans Hofmann, Sara T. Weeks, Bartlett H. Hayes
- Hans HofmannBy Karen Wilkin, Hans Hofmann
- Hans Hofmann: The Chimbote ProjectBy Xavier Costa
- Hans Hofmann, paintings of the '40s, '50s, and '60sOur PickBy Hans Andre Emmerich Gallery, Hans Hofmann
- The Hans Hofmann EstateOur PickFeatures In-Depth Biographical Information, a List of Exhibitions, and an Image Gallery of Works
- Hans Hofmann: Paintings, Biography, and Info | Abstract ExpressionismProvides a Brief Biography, Images of Paintings, and Additional Resources
- Hans Hofmann: Art Like Life is RealExhibition Catalogue for Art Like Life is Real at Ameringer-McEnery-Yohe
- HofmannBy Clement Greenberg / An Essay on Hans Hofmann
- A Challenge to Received Wisdom: Hans Hofmann's Ongoing LegacyBy Mario Naves / The New York Observer / November 21, 2005
- An Abstractionist Dancing With ColorOur PickBy Grace Glueck / The New York Times / May 21, 1999
- Hans Hofmann: New PerspectivesBy Michael Kimmelman / The New York Times / June 22, 1990