Matthew Barney Artworks
American Sculptor, Photographer, Film Director, and Performance Artist
San Francisco, California
Progression of Art
Drawing Restraint 2
The Drawing Restraint series was a long-term project that Barney began in 1987 while still an undergraduate at Yale. The earliest in the series (Drawing Restraint 1-6, produced between 1987-89) brought together drawing, photography and video performance in a way that reflected Barney's preoccupation with hypertrophy; that being the idea that athletic physicality and strength is built up through muscle resistance.
Drawing Restraint 2 was a gymnasium-based performance in which the artist made artistic "marks" on walls and ceiling while tethered to a ramp with bungee cords. Through this experiment, Barney had effectively confronted the time-honoured maxim that the best art is a spontaneous, reflexive, activity. By applying the idea of hypertrophy to artistic growth - be that physical, cultural or spiritual - he explored the concept that the "strongest" artists (like the strongest athletes) should have to overcome self-imposed obstacles in order to create something "higher"; something more "powerful". The resultant video recording, drawings and "set" (featuring various items of gym apparatus) exist as an archive of the performance. Fellow artist Sophie Arkette observed that "These works do not refer to something static, a composed form, but reveal the way one action precipitates another in the course of making a work [...] What is crucial in the life of a work is the attempt at doing something regardless of outcome. In this sense, [Barney's] ethos is akin to that of experimental work of the 60s and 70s".
5:01 Minute Video - Museum of Modern Art, New York
Drawing Restraint 7
Having begun (with Drawing Restraint 1-6) to experiment with video installation, Drawing Restraint 7 marked a transitional moment in a series Barney and through video installation he was able to make "stories rather than documenting real actions". Despite its formal differences, however, Drawing Restraint 7 continued to explore the concept of creative growth by overcoming external and self-imposed restrictions. Drawing Restraint 7 also deals with one of Barney's other preoccupations, namely Western culture's obsession with the idea of masculinity as performance that sates from ancient Greece to the present. In the video, actors wearing heavy make-up, cumbersome prosthetics, and costumes, play the roles of satyrs engaged in seemingly futile physical activities, such as chasing their own tails, or attempting to draw while wrestling in the confined space of the backseat of a limousine.
As Barney moved forward with the series (reaching Drawing Restraint 19 in 2013), he continued to place the body in a central role. Describing the series as a whole as "an endless loop between desire and discipline", the work explores the ritualistic processes of creation through a range of materials, settings, and characters. Art critic Quinn Latimer said of the Drawing Restraint series that by "delineating evermore elaborate contests of physical strength and psychological willpower against resistance at turns physical, sexual, architectural, cultural, oceanic or spiritual, the series resembles the endless tragicomic trials of a Greek demigod, or its most contemporary incarnation, the athlete [...] the body and its tribulations are central to his practice [and] his thoroughly Postmodern work furthers one of the oldest art-historical traditions: figuration".
Three-channel video, video monitors, steel, and internally lubricated plastic, and fluorescent light fixtures - Museum of Modern Art, New York
The Cremaster Cycle
Barney's magnum opus, The Cremaster Cycle, is comprised of five high-budget, films. Here he employs the narrative modes of mythology, history, and (auto) biography to explore complex biological, artistic, geological, and geographical themes. The films make use of dense, surrealistic and highly-sexualized imagery, married with vividly-colored and elaborate props, make-up, prosthetics, and costumes. They are filmed in locations ranging from a palace in Budapest, the Isle of Man, and the salt flats of Utah - meanwhile actors in the series include Ursula Andress, the sculptor Richard Serra, the athlete Aimee Mullins and the writer Norman Mailer. The film's also star chorus girls, tap dancers, Canadian Mounties, the Mormon Tabernacle Choir, helicopter pilots, bee trainers, and heavy metal bands.
Viewed in order, the films follow the embryonic process of sexual differentiation, beginning in Cremaster 1 with the "ascended" or undifferentiated state, and ending in Cremaster 5 at the most "descended" or differentiated state, about nine weeks after conception, when the male sex is fully realized. For Barney, the films simultaneously allude to the process of creative development. He explains that Cremaster 1 represents the spark of an idea; Cremaster 2 is the rejection of the idea; Cremaster 3 is the artist falling in love with the idea; Cremaster 4 is panic at the knowledge that the idea is about to come to fruition; and Cremaster 5 is the final resolution.
Barney, however, produced and released the five films non-chronologically, beginning with Cremaster 4 (1994), followed by Cremaster 1 (1995), Cremaster 5 (1997), Cremaster 2 (1999), and ending with Cremaster 3 (2002). This discontinuity would seem to underscore Barney's view that these processes (the biological process of becoming, and the artistic process of creating) are complex and non-linear. Even though each film follows a different set of mythological and historical characters, they continually cross-reference (they are "inter-textual" in other words). The production designer Matthew D. Ryle asserts that "anyone can access [the films] from any point; from fashion, horror movies, architecture, drawing, photography, football, plastics - or just story-telling". But not everyone was won-over by Barney's extravagant vision, with arts journalist Matt Turner describing the series as "an exhausting experience, demonstrating a weirdness that is wearying, a dedication to provocation that comes to feel laborious, and much material that feels like baggage".
Cremaster 3, the last to be filmed in the cycle, has no dialogue, and with a running time in excess of three hours, it is by far the longest (the others lasting roughly one hour each). A mythical, surrealist fantasy, it features a battle between Barney (the "Entered Apprentice") and a series of evil forces (such as "the Order of the Rainbow Girls", a half-cheetah-half-woman creature and some classic Chrysler motorcars), and is played out across five attention-grabbing locations: the Chrysler Building and the Guggenheim Museum in New York, the Saratoga Springs Racetrack in upstate New York, the Giant's Causeway in Ireland, and Fingal's cave on the Scottish Isle of Staffa.
For the art critic Jonathan Jones, Cremaster 3 was "the first truly great piece of cinema to be made in a fine art context since Dali and Bunuel filmed Un Chien Andalou in 1929" while adding that it is "one of the most imaginative and brilliant achievements in the history of avant-garde cinema". Jones picked out a scene at the Saratoga Springs Racetrack where a "gorgeously filmed" shot, composed in the early morning mist, slowly zooms in to reveal, not galloping thoroughbreds, but the "putrefying carcasses [of] zombie horses". For Jones this scene directly recalled the decayed donkey that is splayed out on top of the piano (being towed by two priests) in Dali and Bunuel's surrealist masterpiece.
When Cremaster 3 opened at the Guggenheim Museum as part of "an elaborate sequence of drawings, photographs and sculptures made from Vaseline, plastic and metal", the exhibition's curator, Nancy Spector spoke of the completed Cremaster cycle as a "self-enclosed aesthetic system". Recalling that exhibition, Smee noted that "it was hard not to marvel at Barney's genius for finding coherent forms for the cascading flow of his ideas and his ability to make unfashionable subjects (Norman Mailer! The life cycle of bees! Freemasons!) feel urgently alive". For his part, Jones concluded his article by stating that the film itself was "in another league from the video and film installations that have become so central to contemporary art, which function, and only aspire to function, in museums, protected from the dirty mayhem of mainstream cinema".
Blood of Two
This site-specific performance was created by Barney in collaboration with American visual artist Elizabeth Peyton for the inauguration of the new DESTE Foundation Project Space, housed in the former slaughterhouse on Hydra Island in Greece. The piece drew inspiration from the local natural environment and the population (their culture, tradition, religion, and ritual). Three months prior to the performance, a heavy bronze and glass vitrine was submerged in the sea by a group of divers, in a small cove near the Project Space. The vitrine contained five collaborative drawings produced by Barney and Peyton in pencil and blood, showing animals, agricultural scenes, and mythological figures, as well as a bronze book.
At dawn on the day of the performance, local fishermen retrieved the heavy vitrine from the water and carried it up a narrow staircase to the road. Next, the carcass of a dogfish shark (referencing fishing traditions and religious imagery) was laid atop the vitrine. The vitrine and shark were then placed in a wooden cart, pulled by a horse to the site of the former slaughterhouse, accompanied by a procession of human participants. Once inside the slaughterhouse, the head fisherman opened the vitrine, allowing the seawater to pour out dramatically onto the floor, and revealing the artistic contents hidden inside. The bronze book had developed an aquamarine patina, during its three months underwater. The shark was later cooked and fed to visitors. The video of this performance was just one of several artworks (including sculptures by Barney and paintings by Peyton) that comprised the inaugural exhibition of the Project Space, which was supported by the Municipality of Hydra and Hydra's Ecologist Society.
The art critic Chris Bors described Blood of Two as "a ritualistic artwork that encompasses local customs without succumbing to the tropes of cultural tourism". Indeed, he points out that the event borrowed from a local Easter tradition that "inaugurated the traditional Miaoulia festival, honouring those who fought in the Greek Revolution [during] the war for independence from Turkey, which began in 1821". Bors also pointed out that while they "remained true to their own visual languages", Barney and Peyton had managed to put to one side their excessive and romantic (respectively) tendencies to "engage the people of Hydra and the island's history, making them participants rather than viewers [in an] anthropological, experiential project in tune with [Hydra's] distinctive setting".
Performance - Deste Foundation Project Space, Hydra Island, Greece
River of Fundament
This near six-hour film, which takes the form of a three-act opera, was inspired by Norman Mailer's 700-page historical novel Ancient Evenings (1983). Mailer's novel, which met with critical derision on its release, deals with ancient Egyptian history and mythology, death and reincarnation, and sexuality. Featuring a cast including Maggie Gyllenhaal, Elaine Stritch, Salman Rushdie, Debbie Harry, YouTube "beatboxer" Ryan Robinson and Paul Giamatti, River of Fundament draws upon and reconstructs Ancient Evenings, simultaneously incorporating the modern history of the rise and fall of the American car industry. Automotive processes are presented with what art critic Adrian Searle calls "the character of rites and rituals," such as scenes in which a car is dismembered in a Los Angeles showroom, and subsequently smelted in Detroit.
The film also includes a number of explicit sexual scenes that Searle describes as "hard to take". In one scene, a man, whose penis is covered in human excrement and gold leaf, engages in anal sex. In another, a woman copulates with a car engine, and in yet another, two women engage in sexual play with a dildo that appears to be made of feces. For both Mailer and Barney, feces represent both death and fertility. Barney cites Maggie Nelson's 2011 book Art of Cruelty as a significant influence upon his view of such "extreme images", explaining that "I think my interest in [explicit scenes] has nothing at all to do with political provocation. I think it has to do with taking a kind of fundamental, albeit extreme, action and trying to naturalize it into the context of the narrative, or into what's happening on screen. And so in some way it's about trying to remove its shock value".
Art critic Sebastian Smee described the film as "disgusting, dazzling and weirdly great" but that, ultimately, the film was "close to unbearable". He argued that people were often uneasy about celebrating Barney's work because it came with "a realization that giving oneself over to his aesthetic was like joining a cult" [...] If you believe, it's like baptism: You are absorbed into an intellectually stimulating subculture where everything makes more and more sense the deeper you delve. If you don't - if you think the work solipsistic, its relationship to reality fragile - you save yourself a lot of trouble. But you also miss out on the fun".
Redoubt ("American Redoubt" is a conservative libertarian movement, established in 2011, that seeks to establish Idaho, Montana and Wyoming as safe havens for conservative Christians and Jews in the event of catastrophe) offers a contemporary take on mythology which Barney combines here with another of his preoccupations: humanity's relationship with the natural world; in this case the wilderness of the Sawtooth mountains of Idaho (the area where Barney grew up). With an experimental score by Johnathan Bepler, the two-hour-plus, dialogue-free film blends the ancient myth of Diana and Actaeon with contemporary American issues, including gun ownership, paranoia of the government, and the reintroduction of wolves into the Sawtooth range after their close call with extinction (around the time of Barney's childhood).
Debruge argues that the use of drone cameras in the film "is suitably otherworldly, suggesting a point of view that alternates between the hunter and the hunted from the film's opening shots, alternating between a bloody animal carcass as seen from above and a skyward-pointing view of the bird of prey circling overhead". Debruge notes too, that, with only six human characters, the film's focus remains on the natural landscape, thus presenting the "human characters as trespassers into this snowy 'virgin' territory"; an idea reflected in the fact that the protagonist, Diana, and her two attendants, are also virgins.
Smee picked up on a talk given by Barney at Yale to mark the event of an exclusive screening of his film. Barney had spoken to his "converted" audience about "a kind of yearning one has to have a functionality to what one's doing - for the works to have some function". Smee, while sympathizing with Barney's view, argued that art is not (or should not be) a "teaching tool" and when it does "function" in this way the art and its audience become "too self-enclosed". Smee surmised, however, that Barney was mindful of his own predicament but that his "endlessly curious intelligence reaches out to the world in all its complexity". In fact, Smee suggested that the more "ingeniously elaborated and dazzlingly executed his work" the less considered it becomes and "the more bizarre, eccentric and nakedly pointless it appears".