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Juan Gris

Spanish Painter, Illustrator, and Sculptor

Juan Gris Photo
Movements and Styles: Cubism, Purism

Born: March 23 1887 - Madrid, Spain

Died: May 11 1927 - Boulogne-sur-Seine, France

"Cézanne made a cylinder out of a bottle. I start from the cylinder to create a special kind of individual object. I make a bottle out of a cylinder."

Juan Gris Signature

Summary of Juan Gris

One of Gertrude Stein's favorite artists, and the only Cubist talented enough to make Picasso uncomfortable, Juan Gris built upon the foundations of early Cubism and steered the movement in new directions. A member of the tight-knit circle of avant-garde artists working in Paris, Gris adopted the radically fragmented picture spaces of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, imparting to his works a bold, graphic look. Gris's paintings are immediately distinguishable from theirs, informed by his background as an illustrator, with a slick, almost commercial appearance, and crisp design elements throughout.

Key Ideas

Whereas Picasso and Braque delighted in destroying the conventions of painting, Gris's chief aim was to please the eye. As the artist himself put it, 'I prefer the emotion that corrects the rule'. Despite his radical treatment of the picture space, his well-balanced compositions, saturated colors, and traditional subjects popularized the avant-garde movement.
Like Picasso and Braque, he incorporated newsprint and advertisements into his work. Whereas they tended to snip these elements into smithereens, however, he leaves more of the original pieces of ads and newsprint intact, as if to preserve the integrity of the originals. In lifting popular culture into the realm of high art, he is an important forerunner of Dada and Pop artists, among them Marcel Duchamp, Stuart Davis, and Andy Warhol.
He was among the visionaries (poets, choreographers, musicians and visual artists) who built pathways among the arts. His costumes for the Ballet Russes show his commitment to interdisciplinary collaboration, an idea that gathered momentum and became central to contemporary art.
Juan Gris Photo

The man who would become Juan Gris, one of the leading figures in Cubist painting, was born José Victoriano Carmelo Carlos González-Pérez in Madrid in 1887. The thirteenth of fourteen children, he attended Madrid's Escuela de Artes y Manufacturas from 1902 to 1904, where he studied mathematics, physics, and mechanical drawing. Though he was a strong student, the rigidity of academic life did not appeal to him, and his natural ability in drawing encouraged him to shift his focus to the study of art.

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